The College leadership teams work with all members of staff to ensure that every student receives the highest quality of teaching and support during their time with us.
The leadership team works across the Crewe, Ellesmere Port and Chester Campuses and aims to deliver the best teaching environment that develops and inspires the students, staff and wider community.
Jasbir Dhesi (known as Dhesi) OBE is Principal and Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of Cheshire College – South & West and has over 24 years’ experience in senior leadership roles across 3 colleges. He is a qualified teacher and has previously been the Principal/CEO of South Cheshire College and Yale College.
He passionately believes in the ability of further education to help transform lives and communities. He has a proven record of working with employers and partners to support economic growth and development of Cheshire and the wider region.
Dhesi is a member of Crewe Town Board, a Director of Commonwealth Association, the Cheshire Police and Crime Commissioner’s Anti Bullying Commission, North Wales Science Board, Blacon High School Trust and a trustee of Shavington Academy.
As a member of the Employers’ Skills and Education Board of Cheshire & Warrington Local Enterprise Partnership (LEP), he represents all Cheshire and Warrington colleges and training providers.
In June 2022, Dhesi was awarded an OBE for services in education as part of the Queen’s Birthday Honours List.
Helen’s background is in Marketing and she has previously worked for some high-profile companies such as Sony, IBM, and Lincoln Software with a focus on corporate marketing. She joined West Cheshire College in 2000 as Marketing Manager and immediately made an impact in transforming the College’s marketing activities. Since then Helen has made an impact in various roles including Area Manager for Creative Arts and Marketing and Vice Principal for Business Development and Services.
In April 2016, Helen was appointed Acting Principal and Chief Executive and asked to develop and deliver a programme of change. Her determination and passion led to a rapid improvement in teaching, learning and assessments as well as outcomes. Helen’s leadership and impact was recognised by Ofsted in December 2016, resulting in an improved Ofsted judgement. She led West Cheshire College to a successful merger with South Cheshire College, providing the College with a strong financial foundation.
Helen is also a member on the Local Enterprise Partnerships Scrutiny Committee, Trustee Board for Blacon High School, a Governor at Upton High School and a Director of the West Cheshire and North Wales Chamber. In her role as a CWP Governor, she aims to actively contribute to addressing mental health issues in the benefit of the service users.
Helen’s role of Deputy Principal and Deputy Chief Executive Officer is with a focus on managing the Business Development and Apprenticeships and Marketing and Communications areas for the College.
Ruth has over 17 years’ experience in education and has been a senior leader since 2013. She is a qualified Teacher and Ofsted Inspector and has a background in quality assurance and curriculum development.
Before joining Cheshire College – South & West, Ruth led the rapid improvement of a large sixth form college. Her focus and expertise secured an improved Ofsted grade and the college achieved Grade 2 – Good. Prior to this, Ruth was Deputy Principal at an outstanding sixth form college with a national reputation for excellence. As Assistant Principal at an outstanding FE college, she led the transformational change of pastoral support and oversaw the exceptional outcomes of all A Level students.
Ruth is fully committed to the education of children, young people and adults. She has a proven record of supporting all groups of learners and staff to excel in all they do. She has been a School Governor and chaired the interim Executive Board of a secondary school with an academy order to convert.
Gareth is a Fellow Member of the Association of Chartered Certified Accountants. His early career started as a trainee in private practice before gaining experience in both the private and charity sectors, prior to moving into Further Education in 2001. Gareth has previously worked for Coleg Llysfasi and Deeside College in a number of senior roles.
He started his role as Chief Financial Officer at the College on the 1 July 2020, joining us from Coleg Cambria where he had held the role of Director of Finance for 5 years with responsibility for leading the strategic development and implementation of all aspects of the Finance Strategy.
Gareth seeks to bring vision, drive and experience to his role that will deliver improvements across all College services through on-going review and development, including the deployment of new technologies.
Lisa has over 30 years’ experience in Human Resources in both the public and private sector, and also had a period running her own HR consultancy. She has extensive experience in FE, with the last several years being in a senior leadership role.
In her last College, Lisa led a number of key people developments, including developing staff engagement and communication processes, implementing staff mental health and wellbeing support and resources, developing robust CPD plans and processes for all staff and leading on performance management.
Lisa is Chair for the AOC NW Colleges HR Group and has held this role for over 5 years.
As a specialist in apprenticeships and work-based learning, Karen has a worked in FE/private training for over 20 years. Karen started her career lecturing in hospitals; she then secured her first teaching role in one of Birmingham’s largest colleges. Prior to joining the College, she has worked at a number of colleges, and worked as a senior manager for apprenticeships at an outstanding college based in the Midlands.
Since qualifying as a teacher, Karen has held a number of management positions, and worked for an awarding organisation as an External Quality Assurer. This role involved creating a suite of qualifications aimed at the health sector and working with the Institute for Apprenticeships to form the Apprenticeship Standards around these qualifications. Karen’s focus is to provide apprentices with an outstanding and enjoyable experience, and to ensure they are equipped with the most up-to-date skills to enable them to become our future industry leaders.
Mark began to work as a professional chef in 1991 throughout the country, including the city of lights, London, working with renowned chefs such as Gary Rhodes. He later worked at two Rosette Country House Hotels in North Wales. In 2006, Mark joined the Hospitality team at Yale College as a professional chef, giving demonstrations and guest talks to learners.
With a wealth of experience in education, Mark has been challenged with a variety of roles and responsibilities including the running of the cross-college commercial activities over six campuses. He had the curriculum responsibility of Travel and Tourism and Hospitality and was proud to have moved Hospitality to a Grade 1 area.
Mark joined South Cheshire College in 2014 as a Director of Faculty. His role and responsibilities included the leadership and management of the Faculty and to embed the College’s mission and values to staff and learners.
Mark’s vision is to be a sector leading Beacon College in education for England and Wales.
Nim has extensive experience of Safeguarding, Mental Health, Student Service, Equality, Diversity and Inclusion across a range of sectors including education, housing and local authority. Nim brings to the role significant experience of leading a large and complex learner support and safeguarding team at Hopwood Hall College, in Rochdale. She is a nationally-recognised expert in equalities, safeguarding and mental health as well as being an AoC Beacon finalist in 2021 for championing a trauma-informed culture.
Nim has also been leading on a co-ordinated approach across the Greater Manchester Colleges, as well as at a national level with the AoC, on mental health, by focusing on creating a nurturing, inclusive and supportive environment for staff and learners.
James has worked at the College since 2011. Following a short break to work in Australia, he was appointed as a Lecturer of A-level and GCSE English. He has held a range of other positions including Head of English, Assistant Director and Director.
His educational background is in English and Drama, with an undergraduate in the field of Literature and Acting. He is passionate about Further Education and firmly believes the sector has a significant impact on the lives and future chances of young people.
Jordan originally joined the College as a Careers Adviser in 2009, and has since gone on to manage a range of student support areas including library services and work experience. Jordan has driven standards of customer service across the service and developed new initiatives to remove the barriers to education, such a developing links with local transport.
Jordan’s role in the College is the Manager of School Liaison and CIAG. This includes admissions, reception, careers, bursary, school liaison and transport.
Following a career in the hairdressing industry and developing a passion for teaching through the training of apprentices, Claire progressed into teaching in the FE sector in 1997. She has held several roles within the FE sector, including teaching and programme and curriculum management, and progressed to Senior Leadership level with responsibility for HE and Quality. Always with a focus on quality improvement and assurance, Claire has considerable experience delivering teacher training and staff development programmes, and, as an External Verifier, has worked with centres nationally to monitor and improve standards.
The move from curriculum into managing higher education followed graduating with a Master’s Degree in Education in 2007. Developing a passion for life-long learning and improving opportunities for non-traditional HE level learning has led to a long history of managing college-based Higher Education. Claire is experienced in developing new provision, university partnerships, compliance, quality assurance and enhancement of HE, and contributes to national forums to promote the sector and drive positive change.
Richard has worked across multiple sectors including Construction, Engineering and Education. Initially serving an apprenticeship in Electrical Installation and subsequently establishing a successful contracting company in this field.
A BEng (Hons) in Electrical & Electronic Engineering led to an interesting and varied role in telecommunications, including managing a large project in Mexico City and the surrounding regions. In the UK, he was the Network Planning Engineer responsible for the radio coverage and transmission for a significant part of the EE network.
Richard taught at a local FE College after he gained his PGCE. He joined the College in 2010 and established the Electrical Installation department at the Crewe campus. He has led various areas and projects across the College, including Engineering, Motor Vehicle & Bentley and most recently taking responsibility for Construction, Building Services and the Built Environment.
Matt has worked in further education for many years, starting his career in the MIS department at Stoke on Trent College. He is a former learner from South Cheshire College, and has since furthered his career with senior management positions at both Leeds City College and Ashton Sixth Form College.
Matt’s educational background is in IT. He achieved an Honours Degree in Applied Computing from Staffordshire University in 2004. In 2014, he joined Advanced Computer Software and worked in the private sector for over four years, specialising in software for further education. As part of this role, he travelled around the country implementing new software solutions for colleges and other further education providers.
Andrea opened her own Salon in 1980 after leaving college, whereby she began to teach at South Cheshire College alongside completing her teaching qualifications. She continued to teach on a part-time basis alongside running her own business.
Andrea began to work for ‘Link Training’ and ‘Specialised Technical Services’ and ‘Quantum Training’. She delivered on a range of work-based learning programmes both in the hairdressing industry and the wider jobs market for the unemployed.
In 1995, she returned to South Cheshire College and progressed from a part-time lecturer to full time and then to Head of Curriculum for Hair and Beauty. She developed the department and expanded the range of provision including her own skills in Beauty and Complementary Therapy. Andrea was part of the successful team who aspired to achieving ‘Outstanding’ and Beacon College status and were seen to be sector leading.
In 2014, Andrea became Assistant Director of Faculty for Hair and Beauty and Hospitality and Retail Operations. Andrea has embraced a number of changes to the department and her vision is to cascade recent successes to developing the other areas in her department.
Victoria began working in the Hospitality Industry from a young age and took her passion for the industry to university completing a BA (Hons) Degree in Resort Management. Victoria has a wealth of experience working in bars, restaurants, conference and banqueting, events management and contract catering.
Victoria joined Cheshire College in 2018 as an Instructor Demonstrator in Hospitality and as the Academy Restaurant Manager. She has been an integral part of keeping the Academy to double AA rosette-standard, Food and Beverage Centre of Excellence and AA College Restaurant of the Year, UK in 2019.
She is passionate about the service sector, and now holds the post of Assistant Director for Hair, Beauty & Hospitality.
April’s experience is diverse and began over 30 years ago, when she worked in the USA as part of a study programme that involved working with children. This catapulted April into a career that would shape her future and expertise within the industry. Her work sector history comprises significant experience in a diverse range of settings, including the NHS, Social Services, Barnardo’s, Women’s Aid and local authorities.
These different working environments have developed the skills that underpin April’s working practices.
Within the college, April has many years experience as a teacher and has developed and led the curriculum for Child Care and Education, and Early Years. A collaborative ethos has been key to April’s continued positive outcomes for students within the faculty, enabling them to have the necessary skills to be successful within their future chosen field.
Prior to Lynne’s appointment as Assistant Director she was a lecturer in the Faculty of Arts, Business and Services. Previously a Financial Adviser, Lynne retrained as a lecturer in business, qualifying in 2013.
Mohammed joined Cheshire College – South & West in February 2019 as a Lecturer in Mechanical Engineering and was appointed Assistant Director of Engineering, Construction, Building Services & Motor Vehicle in June 2020.
After completing BSc (Hons) in Aeronautical Engineering from the Kyiv International University of Civil Aviation, Mohammed worked in an Aviation Industry as a Trainee Engineering Officer with Biman and as a Test Engineer with Shareflow Phoenix.
Mohammed has started teaching career as an Avionics Lecturer in 2001, where Mohammed was able to complete C&G 730 and PGCE-FENTO from the University of Greenwich.
Over the years Mohammed has managed to completed a wide range of courses to strengthen his knowledge and skills, including Level 7 Diploma in Strategic Management, Diploma in IQA, Diploma in EQA and MSc in Educational Leadership and Management from Manchester Metropolitan University.
Mohammed has held several roles within the FE sector, always with a focus on quality improvement and assurance. Mohammed has several years’ experience delivering IQA training and staff development programmes and, as an External Verifier, has worked with centres nationally and internationally to monitor and improve standards.
Mohammed is a Member of IfL, RAeS, IET and EASA (European Aviation Safety Agency).
Daniel began to work as a professional chef in 1992 travelling around the country, including Carlton Towers in London. Dan completed his qualifications in professional cookery at Level 3 and then later worked at three Rosette Country House Hotel in North Wales where he was the executive chef for 5 years. In 2001, Dan joined the Hospitality team at Yale College as a professional chef, training and mentoring learners alongside fulltime Chef commitments.
Daniel joined fulltime education in 2008 where he was a lecturer in Hospitality at Yale College including responsibilities of commercial activities within his teaching role.
Daniel joined South Cheshire College in 2016 as a Grade 1 lecturer in Hospitality and was an integral part of the Academy restaurant to ensure they received 2AA rosettes, food and beverage centre of excellence and AA college restaurant of the year for UK 2017.
He is passionate about the service sector, was recently employed as Assistant Director for Hair, Beauty, Hospitality and Retail Operations.
Dan has been with Cheshire College – South & West for 5 years as a Teacher in Uniformed Public Services before progressing into his current role as Assistant Director for Sport, Uniformed Public Services, Travel & Tourism, ESOL and Prince’s Trust at the Crewe Campus.
He has extensive knowledge and experience working in the armed forces and has served in domestic emergency situations and in conflicts overseas. His aim is to ensure learners in the department are as prepared as they can possibly be to progress into higher education or gain employment in their chosen vocational area. This includes improving their theoretical knowledge, experiences and physical robustness.
Phil has taught Photography and Media in FE for 23 years, through the birth and evolution of the digital communication age. He started his career as a photographer and moved into teaching photography on a part-time basis in the evening, to adults. His experience in teaching now covers a broad range of pathways from Entry Level to Foundation Art and Design and HNDs.
Phil started to teach at South Cheshire College in 1996 as a lecturer in Photography, Media and Electronic Art after teaching for four years at Stoke-on-Trent College. Phil progressed into management and now manages Visual Arts, Media Communication and Performing Arts. The area’s aim is to build even stronger links with industry through our “Shaping the Curriculum” events and an increased number of performances in the Centre Stage Theatre.
Paul has been at West Cheshire College for 13 years. Before taking up his role as Teacher, he worked in the industry as a Games Designer, working for companies such as Psygnosis, Acclaim, Warthog, and Rockstar Games. When he joined West Cheshire College, he taught Game Development and after 5 years was promoted to Programme Leader of Media and Games Development. During his time teaching Game Development, the department had great success at the WorldSkills competitions, achieving a Gold award in 2015, the learner then went on to achieve Gold at EuroSkills 2016. following this we have since achieved Bronze for 3D Game Art in 2016.
For the past two years Paul has been a part of the Advanced Practitioner team, and within this role he helped train and support staff in achieving good or better grades in teaching observations. He is an enthusiastic member of staff who has a keen interest in how technology can help further develop teaching and connect better with learners.
Paul moved into the FE sector in 2011, having spent the previous 20 years working in a variety of secondary schools across Shropshire, Cheshire and Warrington.
Throughout his career, he has held several leadership and management roles including leading a large Mathematics faculty and being Assistant Head in charge of Curriculum Design and Development. Throughout his time working in schools, Paul continued with his professional development, achieving an MA in Education and being awarded his NPQH from the National College for Teaching and Leadership.
In his current role, Paul manages a large successful team overseeing the areas of Business, Science and Computing at the college. In addition to his management role, Paul is an experienced Mathematics practitioner, delivering on the A-level programme and is also an Expert Examiner and Team Leader with the awarding body Pearson.
Jacky graduated with a BSc (Hons) in Business Management joint Marketing Management in 1999 and started her career as an IT Trainer during her placement year. Following this, she worked for a multi-national construction company as a commercial manager, responsible for medium to large construction contracts across various sites with a team of 110 operatives.
In 2003, Jacky returned to IT training in the private sector, working across all sectors with a wide-range of clients including Barclays Technology Services, British and International Golf Greenkeepers Association and the Department for Education and Employment.
Jacky joined West Cheshire College in 2012 in the skills for life team as an ICT tutor. From there, she progressed to Programme Leader for maths and ICT in work-based learning and implemented a number of new systems and procedures to ensure smooth running of the department.
Following the merger in 2017, Jacky was recruited to the post of Assistant Director for Business, Science and Computing based across Chester and Ellesmere Port campuses.
Lauren graduated from Lancaster University with a Degree in English Literature in 2013. Her love of education then led her to complete a Masters’ Degree in Creative Writing, and she graduated from Keele with her MA in early 2015. After gaining experience in a range of schools and teaching undergraduates as part of this course, Lauren decided to pursue a career in education in the FE sector, and she graduated from Staffordshire University with a PGCE in English in 2015. She joined the College in August of that year, and has since spent four years teaching both A Level English Language and GCSE English Language here, as well as examining for AQA A Level English Language.
In June 2019, she was appointed as the Assistant Director of Maths and English at the Crewe Campus and hopes to help as many learners as possible, not only achieve their goals within these subjects, but truly enjoy their time in the department.
Lisa graduated with a BA QTS degree with Mathematics from Liverpool Hope University. After gaining her degree she worked in the Primary Education Sector, teaching EYFS, Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2. During her time in schools, she was subject leader for maths, a member of the middle leadership team and the Educational Visits Co-ordinator.
In 2016, Lisa was looking for a change in career direction and looked for roles where her mathematics expertise could be fully utilised, she joined West Cheshire College in October 2016 as Maths Programme Leader and in July 2017 was appointed Assistant Director of Foundation Maths and English.
Sue left Cheltenham College with a HND in Hospitality Management and worked in small private hotel. After starting a family, she had ten years’ experience as a Youth Worker for Cheshire Youth Service before she gained her Certificate in Education at South Cheshire College. She later became an External Verifier for NOCN Functional Skills alongside working as a Skills for Life lecturer at South Cheshire College.
In 1999- 2002, Sue became a Trainer for Cheshire Skills for Life Consortium, following the launch of the government’s national Skills for Life Strategy. She managed the Skills for Learning Department for over ten years including community provision at Crewe Library. She developed and managed the Family Learning programmes which ran in a number of local primary schools and community centres; in addition she worked with the Cheshire Probation Service to provide English and Maths classes to adults, in line with government policy as part of the OLASS provision.
Sue was promoted at South Cheshire College to the role of Head of Curriculum for Access to HE, Skills for Life which latterly included ESOL, which she held for eight years. She was appointed Assistant Director of Business, Professional and Access to HE in 2014. Here, she oversees the Business Curriculum, Access to HE and Professional Education courses.
In August 2017 Sue was appointed as Assistant Director of Quality based at the Crewe Campus where she is focussing on improvements to Teaching, Learning and Assessment.
Stephanie started her career as an apprentice working in Social Services in the Human Resources department and, following this, secured a permanent role within the Charging department, working her way up the ranks to became a Debt Recovery Officer.
Her career in FE began in 2007 when she joined a local private training provider as an Assessor where she gained assessing and training qualifications alongside accountancy qualifications. She worked with employers and delivery providers across the North West to provide accountancy apprenticeships to learners of all ages.
Stephanie joined South Cheshire College in 2013 in a business development role, working with young people and large and small businesses in Crewe and the surrounding areas, to promote the benefits of apprenticeships. Her area of expertise lies in the design of apprenticeship programmes to meet the current and future needs of our employers, to provide quality training and value for money.
Helen started her career in the hospitality industry, holding operational and general management positions within Macdonald Hotels before moving into the independent luxury hotel market.
Helen’s career in FE started at Furness College in 2007 as a Tutor and Assessor in Hospitality before moving to a leading work-based learning training provider in the North West. Over the next 12 years she held roles as Assessor, Tutor, Internal Quality Assurer, Partnership Executive and latterly as Key Account Manager.
Helen joined Cheshire College – South & West in September 2020 as Employer Engagement and Relationship Manager. Passionate about training and development, she has worked with large, blue chip apprenticeship levy paying employers and SMEs to develop complete work-based training solutions that meet organisational objectives whilst offering their employees opportunities for continued professional development, enabling them to further their careers.
Joanne’s role is to manage the Learning Resource Centre, Careers and Student Hub having gained a wealth of experience working in FE in the area of learning resources for over 23 years. She has enjoyed many additional and different aspects to her role which have included running workshops, planning events and finding new ways to enhance service provision.
Joanne has been active in running a number of funded projects with partners in other sectors. This has largely focused on reading and digital literacy by finding new ways to engage with individuals and groups.
Catherine started in her role as Learning Support and Inclusion Manager at the College on 17 March 2021. Her role is to manage the Learning Support provision across the Crewe Campus at the College.
Catherine has experience of working in three Further Education colleges across the country, in provisions that vary from mainstream to more specialist settings. She has now worked specifically in Special Educational Needs within Further Education, for a number of years.
Alison graduated with a Degree in History from Northumbria University and since 2002 has spent all her working life within the Human Resources profession across both the private and public sector.
In June 2009, Alison joined West Cheshire College as a Senior HR Officer. Since then she has held a number of positions within the HR department ranging from Section Leader, Associate Director and she was appointed HR & Organisational Development Director in September 2014. This breadth of roles has given Alison a comprehensive background and a diverse experience of the range of HR activities within the FE sector.
Alison’s role in the newly merged College is to provide leadership and management of the Human Resources function in her role as Human Resources Manager.
Peter graduated from university with a degree in Computer Aided Engineering. After a number of roles in the building services industry as a design engineer concentrating on developing CAD and building controls, he joined South Cheshire College in 1995 as a Mechatronics Technician.
He moved through Network Support into his current role as Information Technology Services Manager and he and his team develop and support all college IT services from classroom audio visual equipment through to servers, network infrastructure, building systems, telephony, MIS and ELearning.
Michelle’s background is in IT and she began her career teaching IT, Communication, Literacy and Numeracy at Llandrillo College, North Wales. Following that she worked for the RSPCA and several software houses in a training and development role.
After a period living in Munich and a career break to raise a family Michelle returned to FE, initially as Adult and Community Learning Manager at Deeside College where she was awarded for her work with Communities First. In 2010 she was appointed Examinations Manager and also served as a College governor for 4 years at Deeside through mergers with Welsh College of Horticulture, Coleg Llysfasi and Yale College.
Michelle Joined South Cheshire College as Examinations Manager in 2015. She is a member of the Institute of Leadership and Management and also a certified Prince 2 Practitioner.
Stelios has been involved in international education services since graduating from university. During the last ten years he has been working in the further education sector. His main aim is to create international links for the College so that students from different parts of the world can experience what South Cheshire College has to offer. It is also an opportunity for the international students to experience the life and culture in Cheshire.
Since joining South Cheshire College in August 2014, the International Office has grown and developed links throughout Europe and Asia. International students love the learning experience they receive at our state-of-the-art campus as well as the homely feeling they get from our homestay families.
Whether students study A Levels, vocational courses, short bespoke study, sport and cultural programmes or are on our International Summer School Programmes, the International Office organises and offers an excellent experience.
Chris graduated from Keele University with a BSc (Hons) in Music and Psychology, specialising in Educational Psychology in his final year. He started his career working with adults with learning disabilities to enhance and develop their communication skills. He later made the move to further education in 1999, when he started working at Stoke-on-Trent College, gaining a PGCE and management qualification. Chris worked there for 12 years, progressing into management and becoming the Assistant Director of the Skills for Life Faculty, managing the Foundation Learning and Alternative Education provision.
Chris joined South Cheshire College in 2011 as Head of Learner Services and became the Director of Learning and Learner Services in 2014. Chris is responsible for a range of support services including: Additional Learning Support, Careers Service, Wellbeing Centre, Counselling Service, Student Centre, Learning Resource Centre and Study Zones. He is also the College’s Designated Lead for Safeguarding.
Chris and his team provide high quality support for learners during their whole college experience to ensure they are able to succeed, develop and progress.
The move from curriculum into managing higher education followed graduating with a Masters’ Degree in Education in 2007. Developing a passion for life-long learning and improving opportunities for non-traditional HE level learning has led to a long history of managing college-based Higher Education. Claire is experienced in developing new provision, university partnerships, compliance, quality assurance and enhancement of HE, and contributes to national forums to promote the sector and drive positive change.
Ciamhne began her career in social media and quickly moved into Marketing and Communications after graduating from University. Working across a diverse range of sectors (including Legal and Fintech), Ciamhne has designed and developed engagement strategies for businesses from scratch, using ongoing analysis to build on brand and marketing toolkits so audiences are continuously engaged and catered to.
Passionate about all aspects of Marketing and Communications, Ciamhne believes that we can all positively connect, collaborate and grow together with the right communication and cultural values.